Is an abnormally high heart rate. Normal pulse rate is 60–100 beats/minute; over 100 is considered high. Pulse normally is high after exercise, but various parts of the heart can stimulate the heart muscle to beat fast. In lung disease, your the will beat faster in response to decreased oxygen levels thinking it can get the same amount of oxygen around the body, if it just goes a little faster!

Target Heart Rate
When a person exercises or does physical therapy, the physician may instruct the person to reach a specific heart rate and stay within a range to avoid putting too much strain on the heart. To determine your target heart rate, subtract your age from 220 – this is your maximal heart rate. Then multiply that number by 60% (or 0.60), 70% (or0.70) and 80% (or 0.80) to give you a range. For example, you may be 60 years old starting an exercise program. Your maximal heart rate would be 160, (220–60); you would start the first two weeks of exercising at 60% or 96 beats per minute (160 x 0.60) and gradually increase to 70% at 112 beats per minute (160 x 0.70) to a maximum pulse of 128 (160 x 0.80) or 80% of your maximal heart rate.

Telogen effluvium
Development of white lines in fingernails and/or toenails; perhaps due to reaction to medications used, usually resolves over a period of time.

Tidal Volume (Vt)
The amount of air breathed in and out each breath taken normally without even thinking about it (spontaneously) or via mechanical ventilation.  In mechanical ventilation, the ventilator has a control setting to regulate tidal volume.  Recent study data shows that a lower tidal volume is better.

Thoracotomy Decortication
Surgical procedure to remove hardened or fibrotic lung tissue in order, hopefully, to expose underlying more pliant lung tissue to enable the lungs to inflate in an unrestricted or less restricted manner, facilitating easier breathing by the patient and proper functioning of the lungs.

Windpipe; the fibrocartilaginous tube lined with mucous membrane passing from the pharynx to the bronchi.

Fenestration (cutting of window–like opening, a fenestra) into the anterior (front side) wall of the trachea by removal of a circular piece of cartilage from the third and fourth rings, for establishment of a safe airway (see endotracheal tube) and reduction of 'dead space.' This procedure is done usually when a long term or prolonged problem is expected to be present. Because it passes through the larynx, the person will not be able to speak unless the opening of the tube is covered. It is also important to maintain humidity to the airway, since the nose has been bypassed.

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Ventilation-perfusion mismatch (V:Q mismatch)
An imbalance between alveolar ventilation and pulmonary capillary blood flow.

Ventral – pertaining to the abdomen or the anterior (front side) surface of the body.

Vital Capacity (VC)
The volume of the lung measured when a person maximally exhales after the deepest possible breath can be taken in. This represents 80% of the  person's entire lung capacity – there is 20% that can't be exhaled or the lung would collapse. When the lung muscle becomes stiff, as in pulmonary fibrosis, the vital capacity will decrease due to the lung not being able to expand to get air in. It will also decrease in people who are obese, since the lung has to work harder to move the excess weight on the chest with every breath.

The injury inflicted on lung tissue with the use of large tidal volumes during ventilation.  Volutrauma generally has replaced the term barotrauma as excessive lung volumes, rather than excessive lung pressures, are the primary cause of lung trauma associated with conventional ventilation.

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