Residual Volume (RV)
Is the amount of air that can't be blown out after forceful exhalation. In obstructive
diseases, as emphysema and asthma, this value may increase due to air trapped in the lung
behind blocked airways. That is when the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is
Pathological consequences (objective, observable symptomology) of a medical condition.
The state of being infected with pusproducing organisms, usually used to refer to a
major systemic or systemwide infection; a systeminc inflammatory response to
infection; clinically manifested by two or more of the following conditions: (1)
temperature >38fC or <36fC; (2) heart rate >90 beats/minute; (3) respiratory rate
>20 breaths/min or PaCO2<<32 mm HG; and (4) WBC count >12,000/mm3 or <4,000/mm3some, or >10% immature (band) forms.
Severe sepsis is sepsis associated with organ dysfunction, hypoperfusion, or
hypotension, the latter two may include lactic acidosis, oliguria, or an acute alteration
in mental state.
Septic shock is a subset of severe sepsis and defined as sepsis-induced hypotension
despite adequate fluid resuscitation along with the presence of perfusion abnormalities
that may include, but are not limited to, lactic acidosis, oliguria, or an acute
alteration in mental status.
The persistence and multiplication of living bacteria in the blood stream (sometimes
called blood infection, bloodborne infection).
To bypass or divert.
An instrument for measuring the capacity of the lungs.
Small plastic or steel tube inserted to keep a valve or other aspect of the body open to
Permit and allow drainage.
Stoma the mouth, or any opening
(see fenestra, fenestration, tracheostomy)
Below the skin.
The property of certain chemicals of altering the physiochemical nature of the surfaces to
reduce the surface tension. Surface active agents (e.g. detergents) typically contain
lipophilic and hydrophilic groups.
An important surfaceagent in the lungs; a term used to describe those agents forming
a monomolecular layer over pulmonary alveolar surfaces to stabilize the alveolar volume,
reduce the surface tension, and alter the relationship between surface tension and surface
area. for further information; see WhatIsSurfactant? in the WhatIs
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)
An overwhelming body proinflammatory response process by the body to a wide varierty of
severe clinical insults to the body, manifested by two or more of the following
conditions: (1) temperature >38fC or <36fC; (2) heart rate >90 beats/minute; (3)
respiratory rate >20 breaths/min or PaCO2 <32 mm HG; and (4) WBC count
>12,000/mm3 or <4,000/mm3some, or >10% immature (band) forms. SIRS is early
marker of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and multiple organ failure (MOF),
especially in transplant cases; both ARDS and ALI are frequent adverse sequelae of the
overwhelming proinflammatory response in SIRS.