Inflammation of the pancreas.
Partial Liquid Ventilation
Ventilation after filling the lungs with a liquid that has some unique properties; very
low surface tension, similar to surfactant, a substance that is produced in the lungs and
prevents the alveoli from collapsing and sticking together during exhalation. It
also has a high density, oxygen readily diffuses through it, and it may have some
anti-inflammatory properties. For more information, see the article on Partial
Liquid Ventilation in the Learn About ARDS Section 1.
Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)
The maximum pressure being used to inflate the neonates lungs during each mechanical
Method of ventilation where increased or elevated level of CO2 in the blood is
permitted to exist.
Plyethsmography or Body Box
A five foot box with clear doors that a person sits in to have his or her lung values
measured. The person breathes through a mouthpiece and even the part of the lung that
can't be exhaled can be calculated.
Leakage of air in the pleural cavity from the lungs.
Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP)
The pressure that the ventilator maintains at the end of expiration to prevent
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Most often, PTSD occurs after a serious threat to one's life or the life of a loved one,
or following a sudden and traumatic loss, such as of one's home. PTSD has been caused by
such varied stressors as violent assault, rape, military combat, tornadoes, earthquakes,
airplane crashes, torture, fires, kidnapping or severe car accidents. As some ARDS
patients and their family members realize, it can also be caused by a sudden
Also, we now know that you don't have to be direct victim of one of these traumas to
experience PTSD. Sometimes, family members or friends of victims are so traumatized by
witnessing or learning about the stressful event happening to a loved one, that they
develop the symptoms as well.
here for more information about PSTD.
Mechanical ventilator control (several types of pressure controls exist)
which regulates the pressure of the air used for inflating the lungs.
Prefix meaning in favor of, supporting (e.g. proinflammatory response means a body
response favoring increased or exaggerated inflammatory response).
Face downwards. Click here for a list of medical articles/ references on prone
Pulmonary Fibrosis a process
whereby the lung muscle becomes stiff due to scarring (development of fibrous structures),
rather than problems with the airways. You will not be able to expand your lung and
the volume of air that you can hold will decrease. Because scarring occurs, it acts
as a barrier for the oxygencarbon dioxide exchange. It is known as a
restrictive lung disease, rather than obstructive. There are several causes as well as
unknown reasons for its development; generally referred collectively as Interstitial
Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). Many times the cause is unknown in which case it is called
Idiopathic (from an unknown cause; idiopathic would not be used where the cause is known
such as an underlying condition like ARDS) Pulmonary Fibrosis (also IPF), characterized by
progressive shortness of breath, "crackles" in both lungs, and a chest x-ray
that shows small linear opacities and "honeycombing" at the lung bases. A
biopsy usually shows UIP (usual interstitial pneumonia). It could begin as a result
of an industrial exposure, drugs used to fight cancer, after a bout of pneumonia or from
allergic disorders. See also Interstitial pneumonia(s). For further
information and discussion of IPF, see:
(Virtual Hospital, Iowa Health Book, Interstitial Lung Diseases);
(Dr. Gary Epplers website which covers a range of lung diseases including BOOP,
insterstitial pulmonary fibrosis and interstitial pneumonias)
DailyLung.coms fact sheet on Interstitial (Idiopathic) Pulmonary Fibrosis)
Pulmonary Function Studies
A measurement of your ability to move air in and out of the lungs. They tell physicians if
lung deficiencies exist, even at early stages, what type of defect is present and the
degree of involvement. They are also used to follow the progression of the disease. People
free of lung problems of the same age, sex and height went through the same testing, these
results were averaged and considered "normal." The taller a person is, the more
air each lung can hold and the older a person is, the more slack you get! The values that
are reported are in percents and represent the percent of the normal that individual
reached! Below eighty percent usually will raise the physician's eyebrows.
Also called primary pulmonary hypertension, constriction of blood vessels in the lungs
with consequent resistance to blood flow which increases pressure in the right ventricle
and atrium of the heart. Cause unknown. Usually leads to death from congestive
heart failure within 2 to 10 years after onset.
Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE)
A form of emphysema caused by the build-up of air between the interstitial pulmonary
Is a device that uses a light to estimate the oxygen saturation of your arterial blood. A
sensor that looks like a clothespin is put on the person's finger and a light passes
through from one side to the other. The percentage of oxygen and the person's pulse rate
are displayed. If the main concern of treatment is to monitor oxygen levels, the pulse
oximeter gives a percentage that is not as reliable as one determined by arterial blood
gas, but helpful in determining approximate values. The values are dependent on the
person's blood flow, and other factors that may affect readings. It doesn't hurt a bit and
does not incur the laboratory costs.
Pursed Lip Breathing
One of the most effective tools people with COPD have to use. When a person breathes in
through his or her nose, it helps to distribute the air more evenly in the lungs. Instead
of passively exhaling, purse the lips, as if ready to kiss, and slowly breathe out. Exhale
twice as long as it took to take the breath in. This helps push the air out of the damaged
alveoli in emphysema and around the secretions that fill the airway of chronic bronchitis.
Inhale for 2 seconds; exhale for 4 seconds; inhale for 3 seconds, exhale for 6 seconds and
so on. Remember this technique when becoming short of breath. Many people are afraid to
become short of breath and do anything to avoid it (that is, they simply do nothing).
The person is in control if he or she knows pursed lip breathing. A person might go
up a flight a stairs a little to fast or walk too quickly to catch a bus. Instead of
gasping, breathing in through the nose quickly, pucker up and blow out, again and again
until breathing slows down and control is regained. It truly does work! (It will help if
to pucker up and blow out as the leg is lifted to climb stairs!)
Fever, elevated body temperature above normal.
A substance capable of producing a pyrexia (fever).
Eructation (generally, expulsion) of acid gastric contents from the stomach back up the
esophagus and into the mouth, accompanied by burning sensation behind the sternum