A psychotic state entered into by some ICU patients, perhaps as a result of
medication(s) used in the ICU or as a defense mechanism or other response to the trauma
involved in the stressful ICU setting; often characterized by hallucinations, visual
and/or auditory, and lack of ability to recognize reality.
From an unknown cause (etiology); see Pulmonary Fibrosis.
Induced Coma/Deep Sedation
Use of narcotic medications to produce complete loss of consciousness.
State of complete physical barrier to movement of the body's muscles
induced using tubocurarine, a substance derived from the crude extract, curare.
The time set between breaths on a mechanical ventilator. Inspiratory
time is normally set between 0.3 and 0.6 seconds.
Inspiratory to expiratory ratio (I:E ratio)
The ratio of the inspiratory to the expiratory times; normal I:E ratios are 1:1, 1:1.5,
Spaces (a place between).
Situated in the interstices of a part; distributed through the connective
A pneumonia centered in the interstitium, the tissue which lines and supports the
aleveoli. For further information and discussion, see What-Is-Insterstitial
Pneumonia? In the What-Is? Section.
Tissue which lines and supports the alveoli.
J K L
Mean airway pressure (MAP or Paw)
The mathematical average of all the different pressures being used by the
ventilator to support the infant. MAP is expressed in cm H2O. A level of 20 cm
H2O indicates severe disease and a level of 10 cm H2O suggests that
the neonate may be ready to be weaned from the ventilator.
Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS)
Presence of altered organ function in an acutely ill patient such that
homeostasis cannot be maintained without intrervention.
Multiple Organ Failure (MOF)
The complete shutting down of multiple organs throughout the body.
Loss of muscle tissue, strength and structure resulting from
Nitric Oxide (NO)
Chemical compound used in ventilating a patient believed to make breathing
easier in some ARDS patient and assist in combating the effects of the inflammatory
process in ARDS. See article on Nitric Oxide in the Learn About ARDS Section 1 for
further information and discussion. Also see, Therapeutic Role Of Nitric Oxide In
Respiratory Disease, Thomas E. Siddons, BSc, Mohammed Asif, MA, BMBCh, FRCS, and Tim W.
Higenbottam, MD, MA, BSc, FRCP, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United
Kingdom Medscape Respiratory Care 4(2), 2000; Inhaled nitric oxide
therapy is successful in treating ARDS, PPH, and PPHN because it reduces pulmonary artery
pressure and vasodilates the blood vessels in the ventilated regions of the lung; on-line
web address for article at Medscape:
Oxygen saturation level in the blood
Deficient urine output.
Oxygenation index (OI)
A frequently used calculation that incorporates FiO2, Paw, and
PaO2. The OI is generally between 30-40 in the presence of severe respiratory
distress. OI is calculated as follows:
OI = FiO2 x Paw x 100
Oxygen partial pressure (PO2)
Refers to the pressure exerted by oxygen when dissolved in liquid.