Removing excess fluid from the body through increased urine output.
Shortness of breath.
Formation of abnormal tissue.
Is a chronic obstructive lung disease that destroys alveoli walls.
The alveoli can be compared to a balloon that has been blown up and the air has been let
out. It no longer snaps back into place when stretched but lies floppy. When
fresh air enters a lung with emphysema, it enters the alveoli because of changes in
pressure. The fresh air now in the alveoli should give off oxygen and take on
carbon dioxide to exhale and rid it from the body. However, instead of being
exhaled, the air becomes trapped and unable to be pushed out because of the lack of
elasticity of the alveoli. Stale air mixes with fresh air on the next breath.
Emphysema is most commonly caused by smoking. A genetic form called alpha
1-antitrypysin deficiency emphysema is caused by the lack of an enzyme. This
emphysema strikes at a younger age (by 35 in those who smoke; in the 40s in a nonsmoker)
than the emphysema caused by smoking (usually by 60s).
Ventilating tube inserted through the stoma (opening) created by the
surgical process of fenestration (cutting a windowlike opening, a fenestra),
in the anterior (front side) of the trachea (a trachesotomy).
A circular windowlike opening.
The surgical creation of a circular windowlike opening (a fenestra).
Fibrosis (adj. fibrotic)
The formation of restrictive fibrous tissue (scarring) in a structure such
as the lungs that may compromise the normal functioning of the structure to varying
degrees from relative insignificant compromise (small if any impact on normal day to day
living) to severe compromise (perhaps requiring use of oxygen for the rest the
life). Although usually irreversible in nature, some improvement may occur within
usually the first 6 to 12 months after the precipitating event. Generally, a plateau
is usually reached at that point, although some improvement may continue to be experienced
in a small number of persons for longer periods of time. Pulmonary rehabilitation
(an article on Pulmonary Rehab is available in our Learn About ARDS Section 1) may provide
significant benefits in assisting an individual to live as normal a life as possible with
the resulting permanent structural change. See Pulmonary Fibrosis.
Mechanical ventilator control that regulates the rate at which air is
passed through the lungs.
Flow Rate Values
Speed at which air moves through the lung.
A neurological problem that causes walking and gait problems.
Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV1)
Is a measurement of flow rate; this is the amount of air that can be
exhaled in the first second after you take the deepest breath that you can. In obstructive
lung disease, this measurement is as basic as taking your temperature. You should know
what your FEV1 is on a normal day. Asthmatics who take their FEV1 with a peak flowmeter on
a daily basis can tell when an attack is beginning before the person even feels symptoms.
Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2)
The percentage of oxygen in the air inhaled, either on or off the
ventilator. FiO2 ranges are from 21% (e.g. in room air) to 100% (e.g. pure oxygen).
Functional residual capacity (FRC)
The volume of gas that remains in the lungs after the exhalation of a
spontaneous or mechanically assisted breath. Infants with surfactant deficiency have a
Global Fear Syndrome
A mental state associated with a high level of generalized fear.