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A-a DO2  
alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient

A/C
assist-control ventilation

AEP
acute eosinophilic pneumonia (see interstitial pneumonia/s)

AIP
acute interstitial pneumonia (see interstitial pneumonia/s)

ALI
acute lung injury

APRV
airway pressure release ventilation

ARDS
adult/acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARF
acute respiratory failure

B

BAL
broncheoalveolar lavage

BALF
broncheoalveolar lavage fluid

BOOP
bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia

BPD
bronchopleural dysplasia

BPF
bronchopleural fistula